Papers de Investigación


1. “Understanding Middle Management Influence on Customer Satisfaction” – Presented in “The Frontiers in Service Conference” – 2009, University of Hawaii, U.S.A.


A big challenge in modern service organization is to focus on customers and to forge their satisfaction and loyalty. Innovation, information technology and value are decisive factors, however the main aspect to consider is the human factor. It is necessary to focus on people in order to improve the service capability within the organization.

Middle manager is the link between the strategy designed by top management and the execution to deliver services, that is realized by employees guided by leaders of middle level. Our study is focused on middle manager service orientation as the pillar to get a customer focus and to forge the service employees’ performance.

We consider that middle managers have to assume a service leadership in order to foster the productivity and employees’ commitment. In that sense we focus especially on middle managers’ main roles. Those are the key aspect to deploy a service culture, and at the same time to promote employees’ satisfaction that drives their performance and development.

2. “The Impact of Trainig in Service Employees” – Presented in “The Frontiers in Service Conference” – 2012, University of Maryland,U.S.A.


This particular research has the purpose of analyzing factors that should be taken into account when wanting to develop a training process for employees that provide service to customers, both for those employees in the front line as well as those un support. In that sense, we present a model of service oriented organization, inspired on an anthropological model developed by professor Pérez López, that will help us  understand how a company should work, one that wants to be outstanding and consolidate it self in the intangible field in this globalization era.

Starting with this organizational focus, we have developed another model that will contribute to forge service orientation in employees through training processes. The application of these models allows organizations to become productive, satisfied and loyal employees fostering the service capability throughout the organization. The models cited were applied in a training process prepared for employees of the main distributor of Nissan cars in Perú, and we are able to share the results with our readers. We must mention that the research work was selected for presentation at XXI The Frontiers in Service Conference that took place at the University of Maryland in June 2012. This is an annual event organized by “The Center for Excellence in Service” from the Business School “Robert H. Smith” at the University of Maryland, the American Marketing Association and IBM.

3. “How to Strengthen the Service Culture and Climate through Service Leadership of Middle Management: Case Study of a Multinational company in Perú” – Presented in “The Frontiers in Service Conference” – 2014, University of Miami,U.S.A.


Companies dedicate a large amount of their efforts and resources to develop and increase their technical expertise and to create new products and services. Although it is indispensible to reach high competitiveness in today’s global economy, it is not enough to sharpen the focus on the client or promote the creation of value in this globalization era. Research shows the importance of creating and strengthening a service climate in order to encourage a service oriented behavior that drives client experiences, and in this manner favors satisfaction and loyalty. At he same time some studies emphasize the relevance of a service culture that will contribute to consolidate a new philosophy of behavior to frame an identity and commitment by executives and employees.

Climate and culture are two dimensions that must be better understood and managed by executives in senior and middle management. Although the many research results on climate and culture is well known in service literature, the effect of leadership has not been deeply explored, specifically middle manager leadership in relation to integration and strengthening of both dimensions, specifically focused on service.

This article presents a model that integrates both efficacy and efficiency with service climate and culture. This model was applied to a multinational company in Peru, identifying the influence of service leadership of middle managers, plus analyzing the role played by senior management. It allowed us to validate the model and obtain interesting results to foster service leadership in middle management, reinforce the relationship between middle-and senior-management, as well as to identify the effects of leadership in both levels to develop a service climate and culture.

4. “Improving organizational climate and creating a service climate, generic and focused climate integrated trhough the role of middle managers”, Presented in The Frontiers in Service Conference 2017, Fordham University, New York, U.S.A. 


In recent years the organizational climate researchers have shown special interest in differentiating between generic and focused climate. The first also called Climate for Wellbeing has been studied as a foundation to build focused climates and the source to promoting a positive work environment in order to facilitate a specific orientation for employees. Focused climates have attracted great attention as the effective way for achieving specific strategic results through the execution of established processes. Our research has been focused on the creation of a climate focused on service, considering the improvement of the organizational climate-wellbeing- as the foundation, the role of middle managers as a key driver and the improvement of certain processes within an organizational unit: the Commercial Department of a leading insurance company. Our goal has been to foster internal and external service as the essence of the work in this unit.

Although leadership is a crucial role in this task, the leadership of middle managers has not been sufficiently studied and, particularly the differentiation between general leadership and focused leadership. To this end, we proposed the development of generic and specific competencies applying a model of Service-Oriented leadership.

5. Reorienting the Role of Middle Managers for Creating Value within the Organization: an economical, social and ethical proposal. Presented in the First Global Conference of Creating Value 2018, DemontFort University, Leicester, England 


Many studies have focused on customer value and how it is created based on the role of front-line employees in addition to the unquestionable role of top management. It is also necessary to analyze the creation of value within the organization from the role of middle managers. There is not sufficiently study about the role of middle managers for creating value and how to carry out this task. We consider these managers are crucial for orienting and guiding employees to promote value for customers that in turn creates value for stakeholders.

Using an anthropological model we have analyzed the creation of value in three organizational dimensions: economical, social and ethical, and how the role of middle managers contributes to this purpose. We applied a survey to more than 200 middle managers to identify their views about their role and their needs for assuming it. We also designed and executed a program for developing the competencies and personal qualities required for fulfilling their role focused on the creation of value. This work also included semi-structured interviews to explore the experience and beliefs of these managers about the main tasks they have to face according to the three dimensions of the model. Through the results obtained we designed a scheme to arrange their role and summarize their orientation and contribution. Finally, we verified the results obtained through this process and validated a model to prepare them as leaders for creating value.

[1] General Director, CAME School of Middle Management-Perú. Corresponding Author: